Types of Soil: Soil is classified according to colour, size and texture of soil particles. There are mainly four types of soil:
♦ Sandy soil has more sand and no humus.
♦ Clayey soil is usually brown in colour. It has more clay than sand particles.
♦ Loamy soil is a mixture of clayey soil, sandy soil and humus. It is a plant friendly soil.
♦ Silt is a grainy but non-rocky soil. It is one of the most fertile soils.
Soil Erosion: Soil erosion is a process of the removal of the topmost layer (the fertile layer) of the soil. Natural erosion agents are wind, rainfall, temperature, movement of ice, flow of water and related natural disasters. Bare soil is more prone to erosion.
Factors responsible for soil erosion are:
Deforestation: Excessive cutting of plants is known as deforestation. The roots of the plants bind the soil. Deforestation leads to increase in soil erosion, as the soil is left exposed to the agents of erosion.
Overgrazing by animals: Animals destroy the vegetation and soil is left bare which makes the soil highly susceptible to erosion.
Soil: Importance: Soil is as important as any other natural resource. It is a vital part of the environment, and is the most important renewable natural resource. It acts as a habitat for various organisms. It helps the roots of the plants to take oxygen which is present between its particles. It acts as a medium for various physical, chemical and biological processes to take place.